Quarterly Access Journal: Jacqueline Fetchet Contributor

Jacqueline attended the 2015 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change COP21 in Paris where she represented the University of Melbourne. As part of the Global Voices Scholarship, Jacqueline researched the key outcomes of the Paris Agreement. Her research was published in the Australian Institute of International Affairs journal Quarterly Access. You can read her research here or copy the following URL into your browser: http://www.internationalaffairs.org.au/the-key-outcomes-of-the-paris-agreement-what-did-we-get/ 

The UNFCCC and the need for transparency and compliance

By Jacqui Fetchet

Jacqui attended the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP21) in Paris. 

Abstract

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has an ambitious objective to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and limit global warming by two degrees Celsius by the end of the century. Key themes underpin the UNFCCC process and determine its effectiveness: sovereignty and common but differentiated responsibility (CBDR); target setting and intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs); and compliance and review. The compliance and review process will be central to the Paris Agreement, even if the mechanism is established at a later negotiation. The system of compliance and review must be anchored and enabled by strong text in the Agreement referencing transparency, compliance, regular review and capacity building. To achieve the objectives of the UNFCCC, the compliance and review system needs to be robust, promote enduring ambition for the future, and have the commitment and buy-in of all countries. 

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Technology transfer: enabling innovation and technology development in the Global Tropics

By Patrick Clapp

Patrick attended the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP21) in Paris.

Abstract

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has facilitated the exchange of mitigation and adaptation technologies to varying degrees of success. The negotiating Parties of a new universal agreement under the UNFCCC intend to strengthen technology transfer under the international agreement to achieve mitigation and adaptation goals. This paper assesses the current mechanisms, some fundamental political stalemates and barriers to effective technology transfer, before discussing potential for improvement of current systems, such as the technology needs assessments (TNAs) and the Technology Executive Committee (TEC), as well recommends some novel approaches to enhance technology transfer under the Paris climate agreement.

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Bonds. Green Bonds: Financing a Sustainable Future with the Green Climate Fund

An analysis by Claire Smith

Claire attended the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP21) in Paris.

Abstract

The 21st Conference of Parties (COP 21) to the United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is expected to deliver a binding agreement that could be the most important step towards a global climate change solution since the Kyoto Protocol. A key issue for negotiators will be mobilising climate finance for mitigation and adaptation projects in developing countries, which have contributed least to climate change but will be most affected by its devastating impacts. The UN set a goal to mobilise US$100 billion (bn) in climate finance contributions from developed countries by 2020. To date only US$10.2bn has been raised for the Green Climate Fund (GCF), a UN financial mechanism expected to become the premier body for delivering climate finance to developing countries. The World Bank, UN, G20 and climate experts have identified the need to mobilise private finance to fill this funding gap. The emerging green bond market offers an appealing solution because, with the right support, economists estimate up to US$1 trillion in climate-focussed bonds could be issued per year by 2020. The GCF has a unique opportunity to become the world’s leading proponent of green bonds, but it must address challenges related to bond structures, risk levels, debt capacity, and financing models before it is in a position to start issuing bonds and facilitating investment in projects on a large scale. Short-term efforts should focus on mobilising sufficient capital from the public sector, building robust networks, and facilitating market readiness to lay the groundwork for future activities.

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Non-Communicable Diseases – the Silent Killer: Diagnosis, Risks and Management Evaluation

By Bronte Greer

Bronte attended the 2015 World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) Annual Meetings in Peru. 

Abstract

By 2030 three quarters of global deaths will be attributed to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs).[1] These diseases not only have significant impact on countries social construct but are expected to cause the global economy an economic output loss of $47 trillion over two decades.[2] The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified five main NCDs, these are (1) Cancer, (2) Diabetes, (3) Cardiovascular Disease, (4) Chronic Respiratory Disease and (5) Mental Illness. Further, WHO and other global institutions such as the World Bank and United Nations have further identified that the there are four main behavioural and environmental factors that significantly increase the risk of NCDs. These are (1) tobacco use, (2) abusive alcohol consumption, (3) physical inactivity and (4) poor diet. Previously, NCDs were seen as diseases of influence, but trends globally demonstrate that these diseases are having a severe impact on low-middle income countries. Whilst discussion has increased and recognition of their severity has been understood, frameworks have failed to understand cultural factors and country capabilities. These omissions have ultimately impacted success in decreasing NCDs. This paper has analysed how previous frameworks such as the Millennium Development Goals have attempted but arguably failed in addressing NCDs.  Further, analysis has been conducted to gage if success of reducing and managing NCDs through the proposed Sustainable Development Goals is likely in their present state. This paper has a role in extrapolating the importance and role both the World Bank and Australia have in securing sustainable change in how NCDs are prevent and managed. Combatting the increase in NCDs requires practical and community-based steps such as increased training for nurses’ support in implementing proven frameworks and initiating a collaborative partnership with global institutions. However it is realised that foreign aid budgets are limited, it is therefore recommended that the Australian initiate and evaluate foreign aid programs and direct more funds towards NCDs.

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