Non-Communicable Diseases – the Silent Killer: Diagnosis, Risks and Management Evaluation

By Bronte Greer

Bronte attended the 2015 World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) Annual Meetings in Peru. 

Abstract

By 2030 three quarters of global deaths will be attributed to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs).[1] These diseases not only have significant impact on countries social construct but are expected to cause the global economy an economic output loss of $47 trillion over two decades.[2] The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified five main NCDs, these are (1) Cancer, (2) Diabetes, (3) Cardiovascular Disease, (4) Chronic Respiratory Disease and (5) Mental Illness. Further, WHO and other global institutions such as the World Bank and United Nations have further identified that the there are four main behavioural and environmental factors that significantly increase the risk of NCDs. These are (1) tobacco use, (2) abusive alcohol consumption, (3) physical inactivity and (4) poor diet. Previously, NCDs were seen as diseases of influence, but trends globally demonstrate that these diseases are having a severe impact on low-middle income countries. Whilst discussion has increased and recognition of their severity has been understood, frameworks have failed to understand cultural factors and country capabilities. These omissions have ultimately impacted success in decreasing NCDs. This paper has analysed how previous frameworks such as the Millennium Development Goals have attempted but arguably failed in addressing NCDs.  Further, analysis has been conducted to gage if success of reducing and managing NCDs through the proposed Sustainable Development Goals is likely in their present state. This paper has a role in extrapolating the importance and role both the World Bank and Australia have in securing sustainable change in how NCDs are prevent and managed. Combatting the increase in NCDs requires practical and community-based steps such as increased training for nurses’ support in implementing proven frameworks and initiating a collaborative partnership with global institutions. However it is realised that foreign aid budgets are limited, it is therefore recommended that the Australian initiate and evaluate foreign aid programs and direct more funds towards NCDs.

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The Impact of Unilateral Action on BEPS and the Benefits of Waiting

By Madison Ure

Madison attended the 2015 OECD Forum in Paris. 

Abstract

Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS), is defined by the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) as “tax planning strategies that exploit gaps and mismatches in tax rules to artificially shift profits to low or no-tax locations where there is little or no economic activity, resulting in little or no overall corporate tax being paid”

Governments around the world are currently looking at ways to address the issue of BEPS, with Australia adopting a leadership position in the push for multinational corporations to pay what is considered to be their fair share of tax. The OECD, through the OECD Committee on Fiscal Affairs, is coordinating international multilateral action against BEPS by delivering the BEPS Project.

Corporate tax avoidance has a significant impact on the Australian government and therefore Australia is seeking to act unilaterally on the BEPS issue and implement new legislation prior to the release of the final OECD deliverables.

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